I found this idea of classifying moral behavior fascinating so I thought I'd share it to discuss. Reciprocity and social exchange for example, are some of the more interesting behaviors: gift giving, being 'fair', resolving conflicts....it made me think about how we learn as children in the games we play, for example. [qz.com]
That is interesting but I still prefer the classification from Jonathan Haidt in his book "The righteous Mind":
According to Jonathan Haidt's research there are five components of morality.
Fairness / reciprocity.
Caring / Helping (avoiding harm).
Respect for Authority.
Sanctity of purity.
If you read The Selfish Gene you will see that these characteristics opens a lot of space to invasion of deviants. The deviants will make the system unstable and put the population in crisis, but until there they prospered a lot.
The first rule, to protect family can be extended to protect extended family, then protect tribe.
Nationalism tries to turn the whole nation into your tribe, and now there is an effort to turn the whole mankind into one tribe/family.
I have a problem with some of those 'moral values'. They sound Christian (John Locke was a minister). There is too much me and mine in these. To me true morality needs to remove the personal gain from the equation. I know it is disputed that altruism exists but I believe it does and feel one must strive for a higher order which often involves not letting emotions get in the way of reason.
It is interesting that the 1st moral trait that was mentioned has to do will helping family, which might at least in part due to an evolved tendency to favor members of one's own group over others. The Moral Intuitions we ascribe to culture may be already entailed in how we are biologically constituted as humans.
I have a real problem with anyone saying anything about "morals".
#5 is also complete bullshit.
I really don't like anyone laying out what anyone else "should" be doing.
I don't trust their judgment more than my own, and I KNOW what I
SHOULD be doing. I do not need to be told, by anyone.
I am not as gung-ho about social reciprocity as I used to be. Largely because too many people have taken my generosity as an excuse to use me in some way. For reciprocity to BE reciprocity, it has to be consistently returned or at least truly appreciated.
Just yesterday my wife and I were asked to drop everything we were doing and drive two hours to another city on a supposed errand of mercy for a hospitalized friend. It turned out that the crisis was manufactured and had more to do with sparing his parsimonious and self-absorbed adult daughter and son in law unwanted expense or personal involvement. I missed a whole day of work that will put me off balance the rest of the week, because of this. I won't make the same mistake again, and I am unlikely to trust future situations like this as readily. I don't think that makes me immoral, just educated.